Stress-relieving: printing personalized cortisol for patients with adrenal insufficiency.

The treatment goal for patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI) is to mimic physiological cortisol plasma concentrations. The current cortisol replacement therapies are suboptimal due to their drug release profile, fixed-dose character and the inability to cover nocturnal cortisol plasma concentrations. There is a high inter-individual variability in the cortisol need within this patient group, which comes with the unmet need for personalized cortisol formulations. 3D printing is a suitable technology for manufacturing oral dosage forms which allows us to easily adjust the drug dose and release profile based on patient needs. The aim of this research is to develop novel tailor-made 3D printed hydrocortisone formulations covering the daily as well as nocturnal physiological cortisol plasma concentrations.

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